Below is the full bibliography of references used in this Encyclopedia. For a searchable version of this bibliography or to export the references in a format of your choice, see the ISAL Zotero Library

A.E. Eiben and J.E. Smith. (2015). Introduction to Evolutionary Computing (2nd ed.). Springer.
Abbass, H. A. (2005). Artificial Life Down Under. Artificial Life, 11(3), 397–399. https://doi.org/10.1162/1064546054407211
Abbott, R. G., Forrest, S., & Pienta, K. J. (2006). Simulating the Hallmarks of Cancer. Artificial Life, 12(4), 617–634. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl.2006.12.4.617
Ackley, D. H. (2013). Bespoke Physics for Living Technology. Artificial Life, 19(3_4), 347–364. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00117
Ackley, D. H., & Ackley, E. S. (2016). The ulam Programming Language for Artificial Life. Artificial Life, 22(4), 431–450. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00212
Adamatzky, A. (2013). Slimeware: Engineering Devices with Slime Mold. Artificial Life, 19(3_4), 317–330. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00110
Adamatzky, A. (2015). A Would-Be Nervous System Made from a Slime Mold. Artificial Life, 21(1), 73–91. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00153
Adami, C. (1998). Introduction to artificial life. Springer.
Adami, C. (2021). A Brief History of Artificial Intelligence Research. Artificial Life, 27(2), 131–137. https://doi.org/10/gncf9t
Adami, C. (1994). On Modeling Life. Artificial Life, 1(4), 429–438. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl.1994.1.4.429
Adami, C. (2021). The evolutionary path to sentient machines column: A brief history of artificial intelligence research. Artificial Life, 27(2), 131–137. Scopus. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl_a_00349
Adami, C. (2022). Making Artificial Brains: Components, Topology, and Optimization. Artificial Life, 28(1), 157–166. Scopus. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl_a_00364
Adami, C., & Wilke, C. O. (2004). Experiments in Digital Evolution (Editors’ Introduction to the Special Issue). Artificial Life, 10(2), 117–122. https://doi.org/10.1162/106454604773563540
Adami, C., Ofria, C., & Collier, T. C. (2000). Evolution of biological complexity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 97(9), 4463–4468. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.97.9.4463
Agmon, E., Gates, A. J., Churavy, V., & Beer, R. D. (2016). Exploring the Space of Viable Configurations in a Model of Metabolism–Boundary Co-construction. Artificial Life, 22(2), 153–171. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00196
Agmon, E., Gates, A. J., & Beer, R. D. (2016). The Structure of Ontogenies in a Model Protocell. Artificial Life, 22(4), 499–517. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00215
Agmon, E., Egbert, M., & Virgo, N. (2018). The Biological Foundations of Enactivism: A Report on a Workshop Held at Artificial Life XV. Artificial Life, 24(1), 49–55. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00253
Aguilera, M., Bedia, M. G., Seron, F., & Barandiaran, X. E. (2014). Intermittent Animal Behavior: The Adjustment-Deployment Dilemma. Artificial Life, 20(4), 471–489. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00133
Akagi, T. (2006). Maintenance of Environmental Homeostasis by Biota, Selected Nonlocally by Circulation and Fluctuation Mechanisms. Artificial Life, 12(1), 135–152. https://doi.org/10.1162/106454606775186419
Akiyama, E., & Kaneko, K. (1995). Evolution of Cooperation, Differentiation, Complexity, and Diversity in an Iterated Three-Person Game. Artificial Life, 2(3), 293–304. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl.1995.2.3.293
Altenberg, L. (2005). Evolvability Suppression to Stabilize Far-Sighted Adaptations. Artificial Life, 11(4), 427–443. https://doi.org/10.1162/106454605774270633
Altmeyer, S., Füchslin, R. M., & McCaskill, J. S. (2004). Folding Stabilizes the Evolution of Catalysts. Artificial Life, 10(1), 23–38. https://doi.org/10.1162/106454604322875896
Amir, Y., Abu-Horowitz, A., Werfel, J., & Bachelet, I. (2019). Nanoscale Robots Exhibiting Quorum Sensing. Artificial Life, 25(3), 227–231. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl_a_00293
Amos, M., & Webster, J. (2022). Crowd-Sourced Identification of Characteristics of Collective Human Motion. Artificial Life, 28(4), 401–422. Scopus. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl_a_00381
Amos, M., Rasmussen, S., McCaskill, J., & Dittrich, P. (2015). Editorial. Artificial Life, 21(2), 193–194. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_e_00161
Ampatzis, C., Tuci, E., Trianni, V., Christensen, A. L., & Dorigo, M. (2009). Evolving Self-Assembly in Autonomous Homogeneous Robots: Experiments with Two Physical Robots. Artificial Life, 15(4), 465–484. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl.2009.Ampatzis.013
Andersen, T., Newman, R., & Otter, T. (2009). Shape Homeostasis in Virtual Embryos. Artificial Life, 15(2), 161–183. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl.2009.15.2.15201
Anderson, D., & Copeland, B. J. (2002). Artificial Life and the Chinese Room Argument. Artificial Life, 8(4), 371–378. https://doi.org/10.1162/106454602321202435
Andrus, D. C. (2005). Toward a Complex Adaptive Intelligence Community. Studies in Intelligence, 49. https://www.cia.gov/static/29641247510b7a8e3c620b59500fc434/complex-adaptive-intel-community.pdf
Arita, T., & Koyama, Y. (1998). Evolution of Linguistic Diversity in a Simple Communication System. Artificial Life, 4(1), 109–124. https://doi.org/10.1162/106454698568477
Armstrong, R. (2010). Systems Architecture: A New Model for Sustainability and the Built Environment using Nanotechnology, Biotechnology, Information Technology, and Cognitive Science with Living Technology. Artificial Life, 16(1), 73–87. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl.2009.16.1.16101
Armstrong, R. (2015). How do the origins of life sciences influence 21st century design thinking? 2–11. https://doi.org/10.1162/978-0-262-33027-5-ch002
Armstrong, R., & Hanczyc, M. (2013). Bütschli Dynamic Droplet System. Artificial Life, 19(3_4), 331–346. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00111
Arnold, T. (2022). Comment on Paolo Euron’s “Uncanny Beauty: Aesthetics of Companionship, Love, and Sex Robots.” Artificial Life, 28(1), 124–127. Scopus. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl_a_00362
Astor, J. C., & Adami, C. (2000). A Developmental Model for the Evolution of Artificial Neural Networks. Artificial Life, 6(3), 189–218. https://doi.org/10.1162/106454600568834
Badelt, S., Flamm, C., & Hofacker, I. L. (2016). Computational Design of a Circular RNA with Prionlike Behavior. Artificial Life, 22(2), 172–184. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00197
Baile, E. M., Dahlby, R. W., Wiggs, B. R., & Pare, P. D. (1985). Role of tracheal and bronchial circulation in respiratory heat exchange. Journal of Applied Physiology, 58(1), 217–222. https://doi.org/10.1152/jappl.1985.58.1.217
Baldassarre, G., Nolfi, S., & Parisi, D. (2003). Evolving Mobile Robots Able to Display Collective Behaviors. Artificial Life, 9(3), 255–267. https://doi.org/10.1162/106454603322392460
Baldassarre, G., Parisi, D., & Nolfi, S. (2006). Distributed Coordination of Simulated Robots Based on Self-Organization. Artificial Life, 12(3), 289–311. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl.2006.12.3.289
Baldock, C., Oberhauser, A. F., Ma, L., Lammie, D., Siegler, V., Mithieux, S. M., Tu, Y., Chow, J. Y. H., Suleman, F., Malfois, M., Rogers, S., Guo, L., Irving, T. C., Wess, T. J., & Weiss, A. S. (2011). Shape of tropoelastin, the highly extensible protein that controls human tissue elasticity. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 108(11), 4322–4327. https://doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1014280108
Banda, P., Teuscher, C., & Lakin, M. R. (2013). Online Learning in a Chemical Perceptron. Artificial Life, 19(2), 195–219. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00105
Barandiaran, X. E., & Egbert, M. D. (2014). Norm-Establishing and Norm-Following in Autonomous Agency. Artificial Life, 20(1), 5–28. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00094
Barbosa, V. C. (2013). The Conduciveness of CA-Rule Graphs. Artificial Life, 19(2), 255–266. https://doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00107
Barnes, C. M., Ghouri, A., & Lewis, P. R. (2022). Explaining Evolutionary Agent-Based Models via Principled Simplification. Artificial Life, 27, 143–163. Scopus. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl_a_00339
Bartlett, S., Gao, A. K., & Yung, Y. L. (2022). Computation by Convective Logic Gates and Thermal Communication. Artificial Life, 28(1), 96–107. Scopus. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl_a_00358
Batut, B., Parsons, D. P., Fischer, S., Beslon, G., & Knibbe, C. (2013). In silico experimental evolution: a tool to test evolutionary scenarios. BMC Bioinformatics, 14(15), S11. https://doi.org/10.1186/1471-2105-14-S15-S11
Beckmann, B. E., Knoester, D. B., Connelly, B. D., Waters, C. M., & McKinley, P. K. (2012). Evolution of Resistance to Quorum Quenching in Digital Organisms. Artificial Life, 18(3), 291–310. https://doi.org/10.1162/artl_a_00066
Beckmann, B. E., McKinley, P. K., Knoester, D. B., & Ofria, C. (2007). Evolution of Cooperative Information Gathering in Self-Replicating Digital Organisms. First International Conference on Self-Adaptive and Self-Organizing Systems (SASO 2007), 65–76. https://doi.org/10.1109/saso.2007.24
Beckmann, B. E., McKinley, P. K., & Ofria, C. (2007). Evolution of an Adaptive Sleep Response in Digital Organisms. In F. Almeida e Costa, L. M. Rocha, E. Costa, I. Harvey, & A. Coutinho (Eds.), Advances in Artificial Life (pp. 233–242). Springer. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-540-74913-4_24
Bedau, M. A. (1998). Four Puzzles About Life. Artificial Life, 4(2), 125–140. https://doi.org/10.1162/106454698568486